CSS SYLLABUS ZOOLOGY – 100 MARKS
I. Animal Diversity-Invertebrates
• Architectural pattern of an animal, Taxonomy and phylogeny, Major subdivisions of animal kingdom.
• Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa: evolutionary perspective, locomotion and reproduction, Protozoa of veterinary and medical importance.
• Porifera: Body wall, skeleton and water currents system. Coelenterates: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism), Coral reefs.
• Platyhelminthes and Nematodes: Parasitic adaptations and medical importance. Annelids: Metamerism and ecological importance.
• Molluscs: Modification of foot, Feeding and their role in the shell fishery.
• Arthropods: Modification in their mouth parts, Role of arthropods as vectors in the transmission in microbial infection. Arthropods and their ecological importance.
• Echinoderms: Characteristics, Evolutionary perspective, Relationships to other animals; echinoderm characteristics.
II. Animal Diversity-Chordata
• Hemichordates and Invertebrate Chordates: Evolutionary Perspective: Phylogenetic Relationships and considerations.
• Fishes: Structural and functional adaptations of fishes.
• Amphibian: Movement onto land and early evolution of terrestrial vertebrates.
• Reptiles: Characteristics of reptiles, adaptations in reptilians.
• Birds: Migration and navigation, adaptations.
• Mammal: Structural and functional adaptations of mammals.
III. Principles of Animal Life
• The chemical basis of animal life: Brief introduction to bio-molecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
• Cell concept and cell theory, Organization of cellular organelle (their structure and functions), Central dogma of cell biology (Transcription and Translation), Meiosis and Mitosis
• Protozoa: Reproduction pattern on in protozoan, Parasitism in protozoan
• Mesozoza and Parazoa: Porifera: Cells types, body wall and skeleton and water currents system, Coelenterata: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism)
• Tissues Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue; organs and organ systems.
• Enzymes function and factors affecting their activity, cofactors and coenzymes. Energy Harvesting: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration the major source of ATP.
• Mendel’s law of inheritance, Chromosomal basis of inheritance, Multiple alleles, Eukaryotic chromosomes: Mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
• Ecological Concepts: Interactions, Concepts and components of ecosystem, Food chain, Food web, Biogeochemical cycles, Forest, Biomes, Wildlife conservation and management, Environmental pollution, Green house effect, Acid rain, Global warming.
• Evolution: Darwinian evolutionary theory based on natural selection and the evidence, Microevolution: Genetic variation and change within species, Macroevolution: Species and speciation (Allopatric, Parapatric and Sympatric speciation)
IV. Animal Form and Function
• Protection, Support and Movement: Integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates; Animal muscles: the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates.
• Digestion and Nutrition: Feeding mechanism, Digestion, Organization and regional function of alimentary canals, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional requirements
• Internal Fluids and Respiration: Internal fluid environment, Composition of blood, Circulation and respiration mechanisms
• Homeostasis: Excretion, Vertebrate kidney mechanisms, Temperature regulation
• Nervous Coordination: Nervous system and Sense: Functional units of nervous systems, Synapses junctions between nerves.
• Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System; Vertebrate endocrine glands and types of hormones, Mechanism of hormones action,
• Animal behavior: Learning, Habituation, Insight learning, latent learning, classical learning: Control of Behavior; social behavior