CSS Journalism and Mass Communication Syllabus [100 Marks]

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CSS Journalism and Mass Communication Syllabus [100 Marks]


I. Introduction to Mass Communication
§ Concept – Definitions, Need/Importance/Purposes, Types of Communication, Process of Communication, Basic Models.
§ Functions of a model, Evaluation of a model
§ Basic models in Mass Communication: –
o Lasswell’s Model (1948)
o Shannon-Weaver model (1948)
o Osgood,s model (1954)
o Schramm’s model (1954)
o Newcmb’s symmetry theory (1953)
o Westley-McLean’s model (1976)
o Gerbner model (1956)

II. Mass Communication Theories
§ Normative theories of the press: Schramm’s four theories and criticism on these theories
§ Media as agents of power
§ The Spiral of silence
§ Media Usage and gratifications
§ Media hegemony
§ Diffusion of innovations
§ Powerful effects model: hypodermic needle, silver bullet
§ Moderate effects model: two-step and multi-step flow of communication.
§ Powerful media revisited: Marshal McLuhan’s media determinism

III. Global / International Communication
§ The Historical Context of International Communication
§ Globalization, technology, and the mass media
§ Communication and Cultural imperialism
§ Communication Flow in Global Media: Imbalance in the flow of information between North and South
§ McBride commission and its recommendations.
§ International Communication in the Internet Age: the new social media and its effects on developing world

IV. Media and Society
§ Mass media and social change
§ Media as a social system: The balance between interdependence interrelation and
§ Media freedom and its role for democracy,
§ The functional approach to mass media: four social functions of the media
§ Media as an awareness agent
§ Mass media and social representation

V. Mass Media in Pakistan:
§ Media system in Pakistan: historical, chronological, and analytical review
§ The system of journalism and the media system
§ Employer-employee relations in Pakistani media
§ Government-press relations
§ Press in Pakistan: The newspaper industry, from mission to the market
§ Electronic media: from total dependence to enormous power
§ The new 24/7 television: uses and abuses
§ The new radio: potential for change and the present performance.
§ The question of freedom and responsibility

VI. Development Support Communication
§ Theories of development support communication with specific focus on the developing world
§ The dominant paradigm of development: historical, analytical perspective
§ The Alternative paradigm of development
§ Small is beautiful: community development as a snowball effect.
§ Globalization vs Localization
§ Glocalization
§ Social Marketing: how to infuse new ideas into a developing population

VII. Public Relations:
§ Concept of Public Relations
§ Historical development of public relations: from press agentry to PR
§ Public relation in Pakistan
§ Ministry of information
§ Press Information Department (PID)
§ Public relations and publicity
§ PR as a tool for governance
§ Private PR agencies and their structure
§ Basic methods of PR: press release, press note, press conference
§ PR Ethics

VIII. Media Laws and Ethics:
§ History of Media Laws in Pakistan
§ Development of media regulations from British colonial era to independent Pakistan
§ Libel, Defamation and relevant portions of PPC
§ PEMRA: establishment, development, and operational mechanisms
§ Press Council of Pakistan (PCP)
§ Citizens Media Commission: need, present status, and reasons for inactivity
§ Press Code of Ethics
§ Inability of the media to develop a code of ethics as an institution
§ The media’s quest for freedom and its inability to self regulate.